The ancient Greek word for "bear" was άρκτος.
The Arctic is named after the animal; it's the place where bears are.
Naturally, when you find a place at the opposite side of the globe from the Arctic and where there are no bears, it's the anti-Arctic - in other words, Antarctica.
So the Arctic is Bears Place, and Antarctica is Not Bears Place.
There might also be a connection to the constellation Ursa Major, the one containing the north star. It has been used for guiding travelers since before Greek was spoken.
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